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Flat- panel electronic displays : a triumph of physics, chemistry and engineering. This paper describes the history and science behind the development of modern flat- panel displays , and assesses future trends. Electronic displays are an important feature of modern life. For many years the cathode ray tube, an engineering marvel, was universal, but its shape was cumbersome and its operating voltage too high.

The need for a flat- panel display , working at a low voltage, became imperative, and much research has been applied to this need. Any versatile flat- panel display will exploit an electro-optical effect, a transparent conductor and an addressing system to deliver data locally. The first need is to convert an electrical signal into a visible change. Two methods are available, the first giving emission of light, the second modulating ambient illumination. The most useful light-emitting media are semiconductors, historically exploiting III-V or II-VI compounds, but more recently organic or polymer semiconductors.

Another possible effect uses gas plasma discharges. The modulating, or subtractive, effects that have been studied include liquid crystals, electrophoresis, electrowetting and electrochromism. A transparent conductor makes it possible to apply a voltage to an extended area while observing the results. The design is a compromise, since the free electrons that carry current also absorb light. The first materials used were metals, but some semiconductors, when heavily doped, give a better balance, with high transmission for a low resistance.

Delivering data unambiguously to a million or so picture elements across the display area is no easy task. The preferred solution is an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor deposited at each cross-point in an X-Y matrix. Success in these endeavours has led to many applications for flat- panel displays , including television, flexible displays , electronic paper, electronic books and advertising signs.

A novel heuristic for optimization aggregate production problem: Evidence from flat panel display in Malaysia. Aim: This paper contribute to the flat panel display industry it terms of aggregate production planning. Methodology: For the minimization cost of total production of LCD manufacturing, a linear programming was applied. The decision variables are general production costs, additional cost incurred for overtime production, additional cost incurred for subcontracting, inventory carrying cost, backorder costs and adjustments for changes incurred within labour levels.

Model has been developed considering a manufacturer having several product types, which the maximum types are N, along a total time period of T. Results: Industrial case study based on Malaysia is presented to test and to validate the developed linear programming model for aggregate production planning. Conclusion: The model development is fit under stable environment conditions. Overall it can be recommended to adapt the proven linear programming model to production planning of Malaysian flat panel display industry.

Attenuated phase-shift mask PSM blanks for flat panel display. The fine pattern exposure techniques are required for Flat Panel display applications as smart phone, tablet PC recently. We report the basic optical characteristics and uniformity, stability data of large sized CrOx PSM blanks.

Technical trends of large-size photomasks for flat panel displays. Currently, flat panel displays FPDs are one of the main parts for information technology devices and sets. Especially for mobile devices, the penetration of OLEDs is remarkable. Photomasks for FPDs are used not only as original master of circuit pattern, but also as a tool to form other functional structures of FPDs. Visual and ocular effects from the use of flat- panel displays. There were 60 females and 56 males. An eye examination to rule out the presence of significant uncorrected refractive errors, general binocular dysfunctions and eye conditions was carried out.

In order to determine and quantify the type and nature of eye symptoms, participants were asked to answer written questionnaire and the results were grouped by gender, age and number of hours a day spent using a VDU. To evaluate the prevalence of eye symptoms in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit VDU users with flat- panel displays.

One hundred and sixteen VDU users with flat- panel display from an urban population participated in the study; their ages ranging from 20 to 34y. Seventy-two percent of participants reported eye symptoms related to VDU use. Effects of ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel. A two-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation model is used to analyse the effects of the ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel SM-PDP. Some basic parameters such as the slope of the ramp pulse and the terminal voltage of the ramp reset period are varied to investigate their effects.

The simulation results illustrate that the wall voltage is mainly decided by the terminal voltage and the firing voltage at the end of the ramp reset period. Moreover, the variation of the ramp slope will also bring a few modifications to the wall voltage. The priming particles in the beginning of the addressing period are related to the slope of the ramping down voltage pulse. Optical studies of E-beam evaporated MgO films for plasma display panels. Variable-incident-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for non-destructive depth profiling of MgO thin films, one of the key elements of plasma display panels.

We have found that all the examined MgO films have a three-layer structure with a dense interface layer , a void-included middle layer, and a surface layer. We have also found that the void fraction is increased with the oxygen-flow rate at a fixed substrate temperature and decreased with the substrate temperature at a fixed oxygen-flow rate. Moreover, discuss the close correlation between the water adsorption and the void fraction and show a general agreement between the surface layer thickness and the mean height determined by using a atomic force microscopy.

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Critical issues in enhancing brightness in thin film phosphors for flat- panel display applications. Thin film phosphors have potential applications in field emission flat- panel displays. However, they are limited by the lower cathodoluminescent brightness in comparison to phosphor powders. In this paper, we have investigated the critical parameters that need to be optimized to increase the brightness of phosphor thin films. Specifically, we studied the role of surface roughness and optical properties of the substrate on the brightness of the phosphor films.

Thin Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor films were deposited on various substrates lanthanum aluminate, quartz, sapphire, and silicon with thicknesses varying from 50 to nm. A model that accounts for diffuse and specular or scattering effects has been developed to understand the effects of the microstructure on the emission characteristics of the cathodoluminescent films. The results from the model show that both the optical properties of the substrate and the surface roughness of the films play a critical role in controlling the brightness of laser deposited phosphor films.

Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution.

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The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels. The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate TPP from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way.

Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: i Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. The oil yield could reach Location and orientation of panel on the screen as a structural visual element to highlight text displayed.

Searching for information on the internet has become a daily activity. It is considered to be a complex cognitive activity that involves visual attention. Many studies have demonstrated that users' information search are affected both by the spatial configuration of words and the elements displayed on the screen: elements that are used to structure web pages. One of these elements, the web panel , contains information. Web panel is a rectangular area with a colored background that was used to highlighting content presented in this specific rectangular area.

Our general hypothesis was that the presence of a panel on a web page would affect the structure of a word display , as a result, information search accuracy. We carried out an experiment in which we manipulated the presence vs. Twenty participants were asked to answer questions while their eye movements were recorded. Results showed that the presence of a panel resulted in reduced accuracy and shorter response times.

Panel orientation affected scanpaths, especially when they were orientated vertically. We discuss these findings and suggest ways in which this research could be developed further in future. Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability.

The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively.

The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress. Modeling on the cathodoluminescence properties of the thin film phosphors for field emission flat panel displays. The patterning characteristics of matrix projection exposure using an analog liquid crystal display LCD panel in place of a reticle were investigated, in particular for oblique patterns.

In addition, a new method for fabricating practical thick resist molds was developed. At first, an exposure system fabricated in past research was reconstructed. Changes in the illumination optics and the projection lens were the main improvements. Using fly's eye lenses, the illumination light intensity distribution was homogenized.

The projection lens was changed from a common camera lens to a higher-grade telecentric lens. In addition, although the same metal halide lamp was used as an exposure light source, the central exposure wavelength was slightly shortened from to nm to obtain higher resist sensitivity while maintaining almost equivalent contrast between black and white. The patterns were smoothly printed without accompanying stepwise roughness caused by the cell matrix array. On the bases of these results, a new method of fabricating thick resist molds for electroplating was investigated. It is known that thick resist molds fabricated using the negative resist SU-8 Micro Chem are useful because very high aspect patterns are printable and the side walls are perpendicular to the substrate surfaces.

However, the most suitable exposure wavelength of SU-8 is nm, and SU-8 is insensitive to light of nm wavelength, which is most appropriate for LCD matrix exposure. As a result, feasibility for fabricating complex resist molds including oblique patterns was demonstrated. Polar solar panels : Arctic and Antarctic microbiomes display similar taxonomic profiles. Solar panels located on high Arctic and Antarctic latitudes combine the harshness of the climate with that of the solar exposure.

We report here that these polar solar panels are inhabited by similar microbial communities in taxonomic terms, dominated by Hymenobacter spp. Our results suggest that solar panels , even on high latitudes, can shape a microbial ecosystem adapted to irradiation and desiccation. A preliminary study of head-up display assessment techniques. Twelve commercial pilots were shown 50 high-fidelity slides of a standard aircraft instrument panel with the airspeed, altitude, ADI, VSI, and RMI needles in various realistic orientations.

Fifty slides showing an integrated head-up display HUD symbology containing an equivalent number of flight parameters as above with flight path replacing VSI were also shown. Each subject was told what flight parameter to search for just before each slide was exposed and was given as long as needed 12 sec maximum to respond by verbalizing the parameter's displayed value. The results for the percent correct data indicated that: there was no significant difference in mean reaction time averaged across all five flight parameters between the instrument panel and HUD slides; and a statistically significant difference in mean reaction time was found in responding to different flight parameters.

Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels. All pyrolysis products can be utilized by a reasonable way. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design CCD under response surface methodology RSM. The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

An experiment was conducted to determine whether socalled feature displays allow for faster and more accurate processing compared to object displays. Previous psychological studies indicate that features can be processed in parallel across the visual field, whereas objects must be processed one at a time with the aid of attentional focus. Numbers and letters are examples of objects; line orientation and color are examples of features.

In this experiment, subjects were asked to search displays composed of up to 16 elements for the presence of specific elements. The ability to detect, localize, and identify targets was influenced by display format. Digital errors increased with the number of elements, the number of targets, and the distance of the target from the fixation point. Line orientation errors increased only with the number of targets. Several other display types were evaluated, and each produced a pattern of errors similar to either digital or line orientation format.

Results of the study were discussed in terms of Feature Integration Theory, which distinguishes between elements that are processed with parallel versus serial mechanisms. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays. Display devices such as cathode-ray tube CRT televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere.

New types of flat panel display FPD devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment DfE decisions.

Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD liquid crystal display TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.

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Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs. Waste liquid crystal display LCD panels mainly contain inorganic materials glass substrate and organic materials polarizing film and liquid crystal.

The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: i In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution.

Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". Visualizing climate data on a tiled panel display : A user-centered approach. Scientific experimentation related to analysis and prediction of climate changes is highly dynamic and requires various data to be processed simultaneously, including results of statistical modeling.

Small displays often do not allow scientists to gain optimal access to these data due to the limited. Full Text Available Subject of Research. We consider the problem of evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift for image displayed on liquid crystal panels with various properties on color reproduction. A mathematical model represents the color reproduction characteristics. The spread of the color characteristics of the screens has a statistical nature. Differences of color reproduction for screens are perceived by the observer in the form of different colors and shades that are displayed on the same type of commercially available screens.

Color differences are characterized by numerical measure of the difference of colors and can be mathematically compensated. The solution of accounting problem of the statistical nature of the color characteristics spread for the screens has a particular relevance to aviation instrumentation. Evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift of the image is based on the application of the Grassmann laws of color mixing. Basic data for quantitative calculation of shift are the profiles of two different liquid crystal panels defined by matrixes of scales for components of primary colors red, green, blue.

The calculation is based on solving the system of equations and calculating the color difference in the XY-plane. In general, the calculation can be performed in other color spaces: UV, Lab. The statistical nature of the spread of the color characteristics for the screens is accounted for in the proposed mathematical model based on the interval setting of coordinate values of the color gamut triangle vertices on the set of commercially available samples.

Main Results. Carried outresearches result in the mathematical expressions allowing to recalculate values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on various samples of liquid crystal screens. It is shown that the spread of the color characteristics of the screens follows bivariate normal distribution law with the accuracy sufficient for practice. The results of. An experimental and numerical investigation of flat panel display cell using magnetic fluid.

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Optical and fluid dynamical properties of magnetic fluid have been studied experimentally and numerically using a test device with a water-base magnetite magnetic fluid. It has been found that the 3. The computational simulation shows that the surface tension of the liquid plays the most dominant roles for the test device, and a device that can actuate the magnetic fluid magnetically is proposed. The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag DTL , discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum FWHM of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied.

The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation.

The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure. FY annual summary report on comprehensive development study of high-function flat panel display techniques second year ; nendo koseino flat panel display gijutsu no sogo kaihatsu kenkyu seika hokokusho. This project is aimed at creation of the new world display industry in Shikoku by developing the high-function flat panel display techniques and thereby establishing new techniques which solve the problems involved in, e.

For development of emitters using diamond, important results have been obtained for the morphology, and cathode luminescence, Raman and photoluminescence spectra of polycrystalline diamond, synthesized by the vapor-phase process under varying conditions, on the electron radiation characteristics of the emitters.

These results have led to clarification of the optimum vapor-phase synthesis conditions for diamond for high-function emitters. The techniques utilizing focused ion beams have also advanced to develop thin polycrystalline diamond films for emitters which correspond to the image elements of quality for television. For electron emitters, a structure prepared by implantation without using a high electrical field is proposed, and the device mechanisms involved are clarified.

Method of estimating patient skin dose from dose displayed on medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detector. The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC has stipulated that medical X-ray equipment for interventional procedures must display radiation doses such as air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point and dose area product to establish radiation safety for patients IEC However, it is necessary to estimate entrance skin dose for the patient from air kerma for an accurate risk assessment of radiation skin injury.

To estimate entrance skin dose from displayed air kerma in free air at the interventional reference point, it is necessary to consider effective energy, the ratio of the mass-energy absorption coefficient for skin and air, and the backscatter factor. In addition, since automatic exposure control is installed in medical X-ray equipment with flat panel detectors, it is necessary to know the characteristics of control to estimate exposure dose.

In order to calculate entrance skin dose under various conditions, we investigated clinical parameters such as tube voltage, tube current, pulse width, additional filter, and focal spot size, as functions of patient body size. We also measured the effective energy of X-ray exposure for the patient as a function of clinical parameter settings. We found that the conversion factor from air kerma in free air to entrance skin dose is about 1.

The personal aspect of human errors has been mainly overcome by virtue of the education and training. However, in the system aspect, the education and training system needs to be reconsidered for more effective reduction of human errors affected from various systems hazards. Traditionally the education and training systems are mainly not focused on team skills such as communication, situational awareness, and coordination, etc. However, the team factor is one of the crucial issues to reduce the human errors in most industries. In this study, we identify the emerging types of team errors, especially, in digitalized control room of nuclear power plants such as the APR main control room.

Most works in nuclear industry are to be performed by a team of more than two persons. Note that the team is defined as two or more people who are appropriately interacting with each other, and the team is a dependent aggregate, which accomplishes a valuable goal. Team error is one of the typical organizational errors that may occur during performing operations in nuclear power plants. The large display panel is a representative feature of digitalized control room.

As a group-view display , the large display panel provides plant overview to the operators. However, in terms of team performance and team errors, the large display panel is on a discussion board still because the large display panel was designed just a concept of passive display. In this study, we will propose revised large display panel which is integrated with several alternative interfaces against feasible team errors. Three-dimensional self-consistent radiation transport model for the fluid simulation of plasma display panel cell. In plasma display panels PDPs , the resonance radiation trapping is one of the important processes.

In order to incorporate this effect in a PDP cell, a three-dimensional radiation transport model is self-consistently coupled with a fluid simulation. This model is compared with the conventional trapping factor method in gas mixtures of neon and xenon. It shows the differences in the time evolutions of spatial profile and the total number of resonant excited states, especially in the afterglow. The generation rates of UV light are also compared for the two methods. The visible photon flux reaching the output window from the phosphor layers as well as the total UV photon flux arriving at the phosphor layer from the plasma region are calculated for resonant and nonresonant excited species.

From these calculations, the time-averaged spatial profiles of the UV flux on the phosphor layers and the visible photon flux through the output window are obtained. Finally, the diagram of the energy efficiency and the contribution of each UV light are shown. Effect of high Xe-concentration in a plasma display panel with a SrCaO cold cathode. Embedded nonvolatile memory devices with various silicon nitride energy band gaps on glass used for flat panel display applications.

Nonvolatile memory NVM devices with a nitride—nitride—oxynitride stack structure on a rough poly-silicon poly-Si surface were fabricated using a low-temperature poly-Si LTPS thin film transistor technology on glass substrates for application of flat panel display FPD.

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These characteristics are suitable for electrical switching and data storage with in FPD application. Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array. A inch horizontal-parallax only light-field display based on the light-emitting diode LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array MPUA is demonstrated. Normally, the perceived 3D effect of the three-dimensional 3D display with smooth motion parallax and abundant light-field information can be enhanced with increasing the density of viewpoints.

However, the density of viewpoints is inversely proportional to the spatial display resolution for the conventional integral imaging. Here, a special MPUA is designed and fabricated, and the displayed 3D scene constructed by the proposed horizontal light-field display is presented. Compared with the conventional integral imaging, both the density of horizontal viewpoints and the spatial display resolution are significantly improved. In the experiment, A inch horizontal light-field display with A kW three-phase ac plasma furnace for spheroidization of aluminum silicate particles.

A kW three-phase ac plasma furnace with sheathed copper electrodes sheathing gas: air is presented. It is used for spheroidizing ''chamotte'' refractory-fired clay particles having a smooth, pore-free surface. A simple, one-dimensional numerical model for the heat transfer to the particles explains the maximum processing rate and the detrimental influence of an inhomogeneous particle size distribution. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex.

The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle.

Report of the results of the fiscal regional consortium R and D project. Effects of personal experiences on the interpretation of the meaning of colours used in the displays and controls in electric control panels. A survey was conducted to examine how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the meaning of display and control colours on electric control panels ECPs. In Korea, the red light on ECPs represents a normal state of operation, while the green light represents a stopped state of operation; this appears to contradict the general stereotypes surrounding these colours.

The survey results indicated that the participants who had experience in using ECPs interpreted the colour meaning differently from the other participant group. More than half of the experienced participants regarded the coloured displays and controls as they were designed, while most participants in the other group appeared to interpret the colours in accordance with the stereotypes.

It is presumed that accidents related to human errors can occur when non-experienced people use the ECPs, which are easily accessible in many buildings. Practitioner Summary: A survey was conducted to investigate how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the function meanings of coloured lights on electrical control panels.

It was found that the interpretation varies according to personal experiences, which can induce accidents related to human errors while operating electrical equipment. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel.

The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, diagnosed through tissue biopsy of involved organs in the absence of other causes such as tuberculosis TB.

No specific serologic test is available to diagnose and differentiate sarcoidosis from TB. This complex cDNA library was biopanned to obtain potential sarcoidosis antigens and a microarray was constructed to immunoscreen two different sets of sera from healthy controls and sarcoidosis. Additionally, interrogating the same microarray platform with sera from subjects with TB, we identified 50 clones that distinguish between TB, sarcoidosis and healthy controls.

The top 10 sarcoidosis and TB specific clones were sequenced and homologies were searched in the public database revealing unique epitopes and mimotopes in each group. Here, we show for the first time that immunoscreenings of a library derived from sarcoidosis tissue differentiates between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis antigens. These novel biomarkers can improve diagnosis of sarcoidosis and TB, and may aid to develop or evaluate a TB vaccine.

Althouse, P. Fiscal achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of touch panel display operated by micro-Peltier device; nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Micro Peltier soshi ni yoru shokkaku display no kaihatsu. The project aims to develop a small, light, and inexpensive touch panel display that enables visually handicapped people to transmit information by use of their manual sensation.

Information from computers or the like is exhibited on the display in arrays of hillocks and dents. For improvement on display resolution and for cost reduction, efforts are made 1 to employ micro-Peltier devices for the simplification of the hillock-dent display mechanism and for the realization of a high resolution tactile display and 2 to establish a technology for manufacturing low-cost micro-Peltier devices.

In the tactile display to be developed, the hillocks and dents are formed using gas-filled tiny balloons. The balloons are 2-dimensionally arranged, with the gas therein to be expanded and contracted via micro-Peltier devices. Difference between hillock-dent arrays and changes therein with the passage of time provide information. The gas in the balloons is inflated and contracted through the operation of micro-Peltier devices.

In concrete terms, efforts were made to develop 1 a prototype hillock-dent display , 2 a technology for manufacturing high-performance low-cost micro-Peltier devices, and 3 a software program for computers to drive tactile displays. European display scene. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro- displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs.

Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class. Handbook of display technology. This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products.

The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels , and liquid crystal displays , but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more. For more information on display tech. Scalable Resolution Display Walls. This article will describe the progress since on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays.

The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. A comparative study of the physical properties of Sb2S3 thin films treated with N2 AC plasma and thermal annealing in N2. Calixto-Rodriguez, M. As-deposited antimony sulfide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition were treated with nitrogen AC plasma and thermal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere.

The as-deposited, plasma treated, and thermally annealed antimony sulfide thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction XRD , energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The results have shown that post-deposition treatments modify the crystalline structure, the morphology, and the optoelectronic properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity of the films was improved in both cases.

Atomic force microscopy studies showed that the change in the film morphology depends on the post-deposition treatment used. Optical emission spectroscopy OES analysis revealed the plasma etching on the surface of the film, this fact was corroborated by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap of the films E g decreased after post-deposition treatments from 2. UV—Vis and Hall measurement techniques were used to investigate the optical and electrical properties respectively.

The multilayer structure shows change in the electrical resistivity from 1. Panel Analysis. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match Designing low cost LED display for the billboard.

With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel 's driving system becomes very complex.

The design methodology of LED display panel 's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. The HTC is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts.

In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors. Panel Session. In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts.

The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach Lipid Panel. A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2. A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more Functional displays. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest.

The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. Display hardware. To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges.

It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing. Touch panel system for control applications. The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed.

This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool FORT model of Wickens et al.

No, Right! In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41 6 , Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls Hoffmann and Chan The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls.

Ergonomics, 56 10 , Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. These arrangements are best for design purposes. Panel discussion. The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy ; infrastructure transport, data processing ; basic products metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products ; integrated products microprocessors, production line machines as well as new risks: political; general economic financing, market structure ; insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks.

Centro, , Toluca, Estado de Mexico Mexico. NIST display colorimeter calibration facility. A facility has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST to provide calibration services for color-measuring instruments to address the need for improving and certifying the measurement uncertainties of this type of instrument. While NIST has active programs in photometry, flat panel display metrology, and color and appearance measurements, these are the first services offered by NIST tailored to color-measuring instruments for displays.

An overview of the facility, the calibration approach, and associated uncertainties are presented. Details of a new tunable colorimetric source and the development of new transfer standard instruments are discussed. Panel surveys. Consortium for military LCD display procurement. International Display Consortium IDC is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost.

With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays , the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship.

Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels , and modified commercial displays with degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support. Layout of 'hard' and 'soft' control panels. Large control panels , containing hundreds of indicators and controls, have long been used in process plants.

The general arrangement of instruments on the panel should reflect ergonomic principles to help operators to quickly and accurately locate, identify and select controls and displays as they monitor and supervise plant systems and processes. For the multiplexed systems now displacing dedicated components, there is a corresponding set of design problems involving display -page formats and the design of display ensembles. A list of alternative organizing principles is presented, with particular emphasis on those based on plant function. Methodologies for selecting and applying the principles are discussed.

Oil defect detection of electrowetting display. In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display EWD is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system.

It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully.

In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production. Projection display technology for avionics applications. Avionics displays often require custom image sources tailored to demanding program needs. Flat panel devices are attractive for cockpit installations, however recent history has shown that it is not possible to sustain a business manufacturing custom flat panels in small volume specialty runs.

As the number of suppliers willing to undertake this effort shrinks, avionics programs unable to utilize commercial-off-the-shelf COTS flat panels are placed in serious jeopardy. Rear projection technology offers a new paradigm, enabling compact systems to be tailored to specific platform needs while using a complement of COTS components. Projection displays enable improved performance, lower cost and shorter development cycles based on inter-program commonality and the wide use of commercial components. This paper reviews the promise and challenges of projection technology and provides an overview of Kaiser Electronics' efforts in developing advanced avionics displays using this approach.

Advanced and tendencies in the development of display technologies. Advances and key display applications are discussed. Computer, compact mobile, TV and collective large screen displays are mentioned. Flat panel displays step on CRT devices to leave them behind in Materials, active matricies and applications of bright radiative field emission and organic LED displays are developing successively and pressing other technologies to be used in photo-cameras, cellular phones, auto-cars and avionics. Progress in flexible screens can substantially extend the display design and application soon.

Value forecast of different display markets is presented. Panel Discussion. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources.

The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei. This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent EL display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays.

Hepatic Liver Function Panel. A liver function panel is a blood Comprehensive metabolic panel. Comprehensive metabolic panel CMP - blood. Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. St Louis, MO The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices.

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  • It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface.

    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display FPD technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems GIS. We stopped in for dinner and ordered several different dishes but found them all to be nothing out standing.

    We will not return. Also we did not care for the management, we had trouble using a coupon we clipped. I don't understand why restaurants make coupons available if they don't want you to use them. We happened to walk by this restaurant when looking for a birthday card. The inviting smell came from the restaurant and we went in for quick lunch.

    The Pad Thai was delicious and so was the Chicken Curry. Great, quick and friendly service! I've been ordering from this restaurant for years due to the lack of Chinese food in our area. Food is very average. Picked up take out last Monday and asked for extra hot oil. Mind you the hot oil they give is tiny so I asked for 2 more to go along with the 3 entrees I ordered. They had the nerve to charge me for it! Will never order from here again. Learn some customer service skills Lilac House! Love the Lilac House! Food is always fresh and delicious! They are also quick with their orders!

    Love the selections available! My favorites are roast pork fried rice, my fun noodles, sesame chicken and I love the spring rolls! And we can't stop eating the edamonma beans! We had an enjoyable dinner. They have a nice menu- appetizers, soup, noodle dishes, steamed dishes, sushi, chicken, pork and beef dishes. We started with an order of spring rolls, an egg roll and steamed vegetable dumplings. For my main dish I ordered the streamed chicken with mixed vegetables. It was a generous portion- plenty of chicken and fresh steamed vegetables.

    My husband ordered the chicken chow fun- very good too. We both had leftovers to bring home. In addition we had excellent service. Own or manage this property? Claim your listing for free to respond to reviews, update your profile and much more. Tip: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. Profile Join. Log in Join. Review of Lilac House Restaurant. Lilac House Restaurant. Improve this listing. Order Online.

    Ranked 79 of Restaurants in Fairfield. Cuisines: Chinese. Restaurant details. Reviewed 28 June Lilac House. Date of visit: April Ask Exptraveler about Lilac House Restaurant. Thank Exptraveler Write a Review Reviews